DSP Designer Coming Soon with Year-End ICAP/4 Release
 What is DSP Designer?

DSP Designer is a revolutionary breakthrough to DSP design using Intusoft's ICAP/4 tool suite to simulate digital control algorithms and other aspects of DSP design. Special device models provide a visual means to simulate transfer functions and equivalent assembly code instructions for programming DSP digital control. Corresponding waveforms for the design including Bode plots of hidden parameters within Z-transformations can be viewed. The product is also valuable for verifying DSP assembly language programming entered through a development board interface running as a DSP idle process.

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 How does DSP Designer Work?
Problem
Coding for real-time signal processing is tedious and error prone. Even when you seemingly get it "right," errors typically creep in. Clearly there is a need for computer automation to free the engineer from detailed micro-code book keeping required by DSP so that better algorithms can be implemented. Simulation using SPICE partially solves the problem. Substituting a SPICE delay line for the z transform, z-1, is the usual approach. But as complexity increases the substitution breaks down, with instabilities above the sampling frequency that are clearly impossible. Even more troublesome is the increased complexity when algebraic "feedback" occurs.
 In This Issue What is DSP Designer? How does DSP Designer Work? Why Simulate using DSP Designer? Advantages of DSP Designer When will DSP Designer be Released? What DSP Development Boards and Lab Equipment does DSP Designer Interface to? Become a "DSP Designer" Reference Account! DSP Designer's Communication/ Programming to the DSP Development Board "Zdelay" Code Model for DSP Design Designing a Digital DSP Controller using IsSpice4 Technical Articles on DSP Designer
 Take, for example, a simple Buck regulator plant model. The output voltage feeds back to the input, making the current through the inductor proportional to the difference in output and input voltage. But the output voltage is proportionate to this difference. The simplest approximation is to selectively use backward Euler integration to break this nasty feedback, though a better solution solves the algebraic equations. At that, the detailed implementation is so error prone that the designer accepts loss in performance, just to get the job done. Moreover, most DSP variables are hidden in the code, so the simulation predictions cannot be validated. Solution DSP Designer is a software/firmware suite based on Intusoft's ICAP/4 SPICE toolset. Simulation models have been added that make z-transform based modeling fast and easy. This starts with a z-delay to get a more perfect delay model, then adds in a good Analog-to-Digital converter model, which replicates quantizing errors in both frequency and time domain. The continuous conduction mode PWM model is also employed for the fastestsimulations ever. Building on the SpiceNet configurable schematic, multiple control loops are broken and simulated in seconds to measure the stability parameters, plus gain and phase margins. The IsSpice4 matrix solution is used to extract the set of difference equations that describe the DSP control system. These equations are re-arranged for optimal multiply-accumulate (MAC) instruction execution. Special plug-ins for different vendors' DSPs generate C and assembly level code that can be added to a software project. A unified scaling approach is documented that shows how to scale the simulation and calculate the correct DSP coefficients for integer, mixed or fractional scaling. Example circuits are given for target designs that include a modified proportional- integral-differential MPID, design. A novel concept for current feedback the Virtual Current Controller is also developed. Both of these controllers are implemented in hardware using Microchip and Texas Instruments test beds. Simulations are normally performed for AC, DC and TRAN cases. In order to provide the same capability in the DSP, Real Time (RT) code is provided. This links with a serial interface to the DSP to provide this capability. The most challenging part is the incorporation of a transfer function analyzer, TFA, inside the DSP. The TFA uses the single injection modeling technique inside the ICAP/4 software. IntuScope scripts are used to control the DSP serial interface, and using the RT code, the automated scripts make and display the measurement results. Not all DSPs have a SMPS power stage. Intusoft provides a schematic of the required circuitry that needs to be breadboarded for cases where it is not available. A new data acquisition plugin has been added to IntuScope so that lab oscilloscope measurements can be transferred by a serial link into an IntuScope waveform for viewing. TOP
 Why Simulate using DSP Designer?

It's a well-known fact that traditional programming of assembly instructions using a DSP development board is very tedious and error prone.  Mistakes in coding are common and often passed through the digital control process without being detected. Also, hidden variables inside transfer functions are impossible to analyze.  But by simulating the microinstructions using special device models provided by DSP Designer, the engineer gains the convenience of a visual approach to the design, is able to view waveforms of the digital control process, and easily debug this and other aspects of the design.  Once satisfied, the schematic can be used to ascribe the correct assembly code instructions to be automatically written into the development board's memory.  The automated version of this process is currently being developed and scheduled for completion in Q1/2009.

If a designer wishes to initially code the DSP manually, he or she can afterwards use DSP Designer to validate the assembly language by simulating the code via device models and waveforms. The toolset also simulates other aspects of DSP such as the power section, filtering and A/D-D/A conversions.

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### Increased Reliability

Coding errors are eliminated by visually simulating the DSP's digital-control algorithms, and viewing corresponding waveforms.  "Hidden" variables normally latent in DSP coding of transfer function analysis are exposed in DSP Designer, using familiar IsSpice4 AC, OP and TRAN analysis, using test code in the DSP, and viewing waveforms with automated communication between the DSP and IntuScope.

### Saved Time

A visual design approach using IsSpice4 simulation saves time and tedious error-prone programming of assembly instructions. Soon DSP Designer’s automated programming of the DSP’s CPU from IsSpice4 will save even more time.

Reduced Parts

Parts can be reduced by building their function into the digital control process; for example, using
a DSP plant model to obtain switched inductor current without sensing current directly.

### Improved Time to Market

The above advantages equate to faster market entry and higher product reliability.

### Turnkey Simulation Tool Suite

DSP Designer is but part of today's most advanced and easy to use analog, mixed-signal, and mixed systems simulation toolset, including magnetic design and synthesis software and test synthesis software in select packages. Intusoft's scalable ICAP/4 software offerings and Test Designer are beneficial for any type of design simulation, verification, test and documentation.

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 When will DSP Designer be Released?

Initial capability of DSP Designer will be included in the next ICAP/4 and Test Designer release in December, 2008 for select packages. This will include an oscilloscope plug-in for firmware importation of lab waveforms
into IntuScope. It will not yet include automated IsSpice4 communication to the DSP development board's memory to program assembly instructions through the IDE. DSP Designer will be included in Intusoft's ICAP/4 Windows Power Deluxe, ICAP/4 Windows Power/RF Deluxe, Power Supply Designer, ICAP/4 Professional and Test Designer products at no additional cost. A new Magnetics Designer release is also scheduled for December.

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 What DSP Development Boards and Lab Equipment does DSP Designer Interface to?

Intusoft is examining a custom DSP Development board of their own. This will be comprised of a Dual Buck/Boost synchronus SMPS with Hi voltage inputs from 12 to 30 VDC, output from 0 to 30 VDC, with a maximum average power of 200 watts. If approved, it will be targeted for release in January, 2009.

The MicroChip dsPICDEM SMPS Buck Development Board was originally used for Intusoft's DSP Designer work, but it did require a number of modifications. A new board from MicroChip is used now, but is not yet released to the public. It is scheduled for a release in January of 2009.

The Texas Instruments/Spectrum Digital Board 2812eZdsp kit was also used with DSP Designer. However, there was a piggy-back board that Intusoft attached to it for DSP development. Intusoft is examining a custom DSP Development board of their own. This will be comprised of a Dual Buck/Boost synchronus SPMS with Hi voltage inputs from 12 to 30 VDC, output from 0 to 30 VDC, with a maximum average power of 200 watts. If approved, it will be targeted for release in January, 2009.

The Tektronix TDS1012B oscilloscope with USB interface and the Tektronix TPS2014 with RS232 serial interface will be supported for waveform importation. Other series 1000 and 2000 scopes should work with the communication interface.

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 Become a "DSP Designer" Reference Account!

sign up as a reference account for designing a DSP using this revolutionary product. We're looking for a few accounts to work closely with. Receive the software for free, or at a reduced upgrade cost if you have less than a “Power Supply Designer” offering.
Call us at 1-310-952-0657 or, E-mail .

Technical Articles on DSP Designer.

Control Systems Sidebar

A Novel Approach to DSP

Z Transform Basics

SMPS and Extracting Hidden Variables

Quantisizing Noise

Transfer Func. Analysis

DSP Scaling

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 DSP Designer's Communication/Programming to the DSP Development Board

The serial interface that connects DSP Designer to an oscilloscope uses the RS232C connection that's included with the MicroChip SMPS Buck evaluation board. Texas Instruments has a similar interface, but uses a different protocol. The objective is to have a low overhead background process that can read and write (peak/poke) into memory. Intusoft's code generator associates symbol name (node names) to DSP memory locations. With the DSP turned on and running at steady state, reading the memory values at these locations and scaling them back into the floating point representation used by IsSpice4, the IsSpice4 OP (operating point values) are acquired.  If the code was generated using DSP Designer the scale factor is known, otherwise the user must enter an integer value that DSP uses to represent "one."  The signed integer values will be divided by "one" to get the IsSpice4 floating point values. These values need a further conversion by the A/D scale factor to convert the floating-point values into IsSpice4 node voltages. A DSP button will be added to IntuScope's "Add Waveforms" dialog to initialize these values. This information is stored in the registry for each project (SpiceNet drawing name). The DSP will use the IntuScope "Browse" button to access these values. IntuScope gets a new capability to look at vector length 1 variables by loading them into a "plot" data structure that's viewed as a list in the output window. A script is then made to compare the active simulation's OP plot values with the DSP OP values.

For transient analysis the DSP is set up for a step load test. That's part of the existing code and hardware built into the DSP SMPS evaluation board. This requires some extra test hardware for a user-designed board. The hardware can be part of an external test setup, but requires a repetitive signal to be sent from a DSP digital port to activate the load switching. The transient vector is built by adding one point per load switching period. The first point is taken just before the load switch. Subsequent points are delayed by the PWM sample, Tsample, so that the entire waveform is collected in (Switch period)/Tsample. For load switching running at 100Hz (Tswperiod = 10ms), and a computation cycle at 100kHz (Tsample=10us), the waveform is 1000 points long and takes 10 seconds to acquire. The DSP background load is small compared to its overall capability. Running the RS232 at 19,200 Baud allows up to 10 test points to be monitored.

For AC analysis, a sine-cosine generator is programmed into the DSP firmware. This requires about 15 instructions or about .5 usec for a 30mip instruction rate. Additionally, there are:

4 coefficients that must be set to determine the frequency

4 data words holding sine, cosine, prevous_sine and previous_cosine

1 data word, TFAtime, to control the process and

1 data word, Vsig, to scale the signal level.

The memory word, TFAtime, is used as a timer register in the DSP. It is initialized to zero. The DSP doesn't enter the TFA (Transfer Function Analysis) code section until the TFAtime word is set to 0x1 using the serial interface. When the DSP sees this condition in the idle loop, it initializes and starts the sine-cosine generator. The generator will run forever in this state. When TFAtime >= 0x2, the data accumulation phase starts. Then at the end of each Tsample interrupt, the sum of Vout*sine and Vout*cosine is accumulated and TFAtime is incremented. This computation is done after setting the PWM duty ratio so that it doesn't add to the computational delay; it just uses some of the "spare" time at the end of the A/D interrupt. When TFAtime =TFAperiod, the data accumulation stops. When the idle loop sees TFAtime==TFAperiod, it sets TFAtime=0 and sends the accumulated data (Vout) back to IntuScope using the RS232 interface. Scope then scales the data and computes Vin=Vout+Vsig for the TFA frequency that was previously initialized. Scope proceeds to the next frequency and repeats the process. This is all done in a new IntuScope script, so when its finished a Bode Plot will be automatically generated. The user will be required to insert the Vout test point by adding Vsig=Ksig*sine to the data at Vout and placing it a Vin, just as it's done in SpiceNet to set up a single voltage injection GFT. But it is not necessary to measure Vin because it can be computed using IntuScope as Vout+Vsig. For the default using DSP Designer as the code generator, Vout will be the computed PWM duty ratio before limiting, and Vin will be presented to the PWM limiter.

There are a few fine points that must be understood when programming the TFA.
First, (TFAperiod-2)*Tsample must contain an integer number of test frequency periods. That will cause the test signal to begin and end at the same time. That condition is computed in the TFA script, causing the actual test frequency to be slightly altered from its desired value. Restricting the exact TFA frequency to meet this condition eliminates artifacts from the Fourier coefficients commonly done using windowing in DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) analysis.

Second, it's necessary to let the transient residues settle out after changing the frequency.
The default is to use 50ms for settling, and 50ms for data accumulation.

Third, Vsig must be small enough to prevent Duty Ratio limiting. If Vsig is made constant for the entire frequency sweep, it may be too small to get accurate data at lower frequencies. Good control system design has a loop gain that decreases 6dB per octave, so that the Vin signal strength can be estimated for the "best" deadbeat controller. The following calculations show how to make the duty ratio signal constant at about .1 p-p for this case:

First, sine is scaled 2.14 and the controller is scaled 8.8 so the sine needs to be scaled 2^8/2^14 = 2^-6

 Then, (Vout+Vsig)*A=Vout Vout*A-Vout = -Vsig*A Vout=-Vsig/((A-1) Vd=Vout+Vsig = Vsig/(1-A)+Vsig=Vsig*(1+1/(1-A)) Vd=(2-A)/(1-A)

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 "Zdelay" Code Model for DSP Design

Design and analysis of control system are usually performed in the frequency domain, whereby the time domain process of convolution is replaced by a simple multiplication in frequency domain. In DSP design sampled data systems use a similar concept using a unit delay as the basic building block. The s-plane mapping into discrete z-plane is achieved by:

=

where in general represents a unit delay of  nT seconds. S-domain transfer functions are then transformed into ratios of polynomials

=

The equation can be re-arranged to solve for Vout and is implemented using the direct programming method as shown in the following block diagram with the unit time delay (UTD) implemented using a IsSpice4 transmission line. This implementation allows for IsSpice4 analysis of the time domain difference equations, including both transient and ac analysis, and of course Bode plots.

A new model, Zdelay, has been developed, which has superior convergence and memory usage performance over the traditional UTD transmission line IsSpice4 model. This new model is implemented with Intusoft's Code Model SDK tool. The model is highly customizable with several user specified parameters. These parameters include start up delay, sampling time, propagation time, initial condition, and high and low output limits. For DSP and general sample and hold applications, Zdelay becomes the model of choice due to its customizability and superior performance over transmission line based models.

As an example, consider the following sine-cosine waveform generator in Figure 1, which is implemented with the new Zdelay model. Note that the initial conditions are necessary to kick-start the circuit. This is easily achieved by specifying the necessary initial condition (IC) values on the delay models.

Figure 1, Sine-cosine waveform generator

2KHz generated sine and cosine waveforms are shown below in Figure 2.

Figure 2, 2KHz generated sine and cosine waveforms

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 Designing a Digital DSP Controller using IsSpice4

Consider a Buck regulator operating in Continuous Conduction Mode(CCM) with common input and output grounds as shown below in Figure 3. Note that the schematic is shown with UTD models, which are eventually replaced by Zdelay models described earlier. IsSpice4 is capable of modeling continuous time functions by using a variable time step. That capability will be used to make a continuous time analog model. The continuous time model is then transformed to a z-domain based model by the zero order hold. The z-domain equations are then re-arranged into the familiar Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) DSP equations.

IsSpice4 constructs a matrix to solve these simultaneous equations. Since these equations are linear there is no need to reformulate the matrix for each step. Using IsSpice4 to solve these equations also eliminates the delays that are usually inserted to break feedback paths. The matrix order is also conditioned to provide the best results for a finite word length system.

Coding a DSP manually is extremely error prone, even passing through errors that appear to work. The design complexity level makes the decision to use DSPs in new designs very difficult. The engineering effort is higher than for a comparable analog design. However by formulating the DSP design in such a way to be solved by IsSpice4 (i.e., using special schematic models, simulation waveform views, etc., as found in DSP Designer), the programming of a DSP is made much easier, automated, and with increased design quality.

The actual solution in IsSpice4 is calculated by LU decomposition. But the right hand side, RHS, of the matrix is zero for the non-trivial part of the matrix, which results in constant coefficients for the final backward substitution. The matrix solution is obtained by a properly sequenced series of multiply-accumulate (MAC) instructions, in which matrix coefficients are stored in a constant array, and state variables are accessed in the order corresponding to their associated coefficients. MAC instructions vary for different DSPs so the code generator algorithm is tailored to the target DSP.

Figure 3, Buck regulator operating in Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM)

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